What is obesity? How can we determine – does person have excess weight or not? What are the forms of obesity? How obesity affects different organs and parts of body? Read the answers for this questions below.
Obesity is a condition accompanied by an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body and leading to disruption of normal body weight by 10% and above.
There are the following forms of obesity:
- Alimentary (in most cases it is overeating)
- Endocrine (in diseases of the endocrine glands - such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, and others)
- Cerebral (found in brain lesions of tumors neuroinfections, as a result of injury, etc.)
- Dosage (occurs when you are taking certain medicines pharmacological groups - antideprissanty, hormones, etc.).
So how can we determine – does person have excess weight or not? To do this you can use a particular index Quetelet, which is calculated in the following way:
BMI (body mass index) = weight in kilograms divided to height in meters squared
BMI and the associated relative risk for health are interpreted according to the following scale:
- BMI less than 20 - underweight can be linked to any problems in health status;
- BMI between 20 and 25 is a good indicator for most people;
- BMI between 25 and 30 indicates obesity and overweight of 1st degree, which can lead to problems with health for some people;
- BMI between 30 and 40 are estimated to be obese, 2 nd degree, which is associated with a moderate risk for health;
- BMI over 40 - it is a heavy degree of obesity (3rd degree), which often leads to serious health consequences.
BMI between 20 and 27 is considered to be accepted. People who have values above this level have an increased risk of health problems, this risk varies with age. There is a significant increase of obesity in the socio - affluent strata of society. Approximately 1/4 - 1/3 of the world's population un the age of 20 -65 years have overweight.
Children and teenagers who have overweight, remain full in adulthood. However, most adults, who have overweight now, in childhood had normal weight. People suffering from obesity from a young age have a higher risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Fullness undoubtedly does not improve the appearance of people, but it is not the main thing. Obesity is a serious disease that occurs with metabolic disorders, and not many people know that obesity is a significant factor in the development of a number of diseases.
Heart and blood vessels
Obesity significantly increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. And it's not just that, providing blood and oxygen to the large body, the heart is working just to wear. Fat has hormonal activity. It secretes substances that increase blood pressure. This leads to the development of hypertension, it is often observed in obese people by the age of thirty. A high blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiac events. In addition, adipose tissue hormones negatively affect vessels: they accelerate the aging, make less elastic and more prone to cholesterol deposition. Consequence of it is atherosclerosis - another major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes.
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Metabolism, obesity and diabetes
Obesity - a major risk factor for the development of the second type of diabetes. The more fat cells in the body and the larger they are - the less body is sensitive to insulin - a hormone necessary for the processing of blood glucose. As a result, the sugar level is growing and the disease is developing. There are many medicines for the treatment of diabetes of the second type. But it noted that one of the most effective measures is the reducing of the weight by about 10% (weigh 100 kg - should lose weight 10 kg). Because of this sensitivity to insulin increases markedly, in the early stages you can even avoid further disease development.
The spine and joints
Being the owner of overweight is like to wear a heavy bag. This greatly increases the strain on the intervertebral discs and "supporting" joints - knee and hip. They wear faster, in their destructive changes occur. According to the statistics, women suffering from obesity have the osteoarthritis of the knee for 4 times more likely than slender women.
Organs of the gastrointestinal tract
Obesity is fraught with disruption of the gastrointestinal tract: dysmotility of the stomach, intestines, bile ducts; FH liver; cholelithiasis and urolithiasis; violation of pancreatic function.
If the body mass index greater than 35 kg / m2, sharply increases the risk of sleep apnea - a delay of breathing during sleep. When the fat is stored in the area of the neck, the lumen breathing will be narrow. During the day the body can compensate this, but at night the muscles relax. As a result, the respiratory tract fallen down and the air can not flow to the lungs. Blood and organs are not saturated with air. So a person can not breathe fully and the brain has to "wake up". So the phase of deep sleep does not come, during this phase produced the growth hormone in the body. As for adults the fat is not consumed, but does not cease to accumulate, we gain weight more. You need to take care of yourself: go on a diet, increase physical activity. Weight of loss by 10% reduces the number of stops breathing for two times.
Also fat compress the veins leading to the lungs. Because of this there may be the stagnation in the pleura, poor ventilation. Pneumonia and other inflammatory airway diseases often develop.
Genitals, obesity in pregnancy
Fat has a hormonal activity, an excess of it can affect the menstrual cycle, exacerbated for polycystic, and often lead to the female endocrine infertility and breast cancer. Excess weight affects the reproductive capabilities of men, in the first place - the potency. For women obesity is the cause of increasing the incidence of toxicosis at the second half of pregnancy, birth of a large, but immature children, and then insufficient lactation in the postpartum period.
Also obesity threatens: increased fragility of nails; hair loss; eczematous skin changes in areas of increased sweating; flatfoot, valgus deformation of the feet and knees, osteoarthritis of large joints.
Therefore, summing up the above, you must think about what you eat. Obesity - it's a disease that can be prevented, and therefore, you can protect yourself from serious complications associated with it. In people with severe obesity life expectancy reduces for 12-15 years. To live a long, happy and fulfilling life - eat properly, keep an active lifestyle, sleep for 8 hours a day, learn to manage your emotions and smile more often.
- READ ALSO: Is obesity a disease?