What does DNA stand for?

Do you know what DNA really stands for? What is it and how does it influence your life and personality in the first place? Keep reading this article to find out more.

dna structure

Scientifically speaking, DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. However, its wider definition is that Deoxyribonucleic Acid functions as a an essential molecule that tells our body how to work and develop.

Most of DNA is located in the nucleus of every cell except for a small amount of DNA in mitochondria (also known as mtBNA). DNA structure is as follows: it consists of four basic chemicals known as adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. These bases are used in a DNA code. But let us start with the cells first.

A human body is a complex mechanism. There is no other mechanism in the world that would be as complex as our body. Every human being has a DNA which makes our lives and ability to function possible.

DNA replication

As the human’s body consists of numerous cells, each of which has its own function and meaning, the main function of the DNA is to “explain” each cell цhat exactly to do to make it possible for a human’s body to exist.

In order to “explain” the cells what to do, there is such a thing as a DNA code. It is made of letters standing for adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). These letters are united into a group of three to make up a codon, while these codons unite into groups as well to make a string like GTA ACA TGC CAG, etc.

You might think that four letters are not enough to create a string long enough; however, as the DNA consists of thousands of letters, this allows the DNA to create billions of combinations.

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DNA facts

As scientists state the child has 95% of his/her parents’ DNA. Therefore, people often take a DNA test to check whether they really are related to the child. The test aims to check the person’s genome in order to find out the person’s genealogy. Basically DNA test is needed in order to compare the DNA of one person to the other and find out whether their DNA have anything in common.

Such tests cannot answer the questions of possible genetic diseases. They only prove or deny the relative connection between people.  

Another worth noting about the DNA is that there is such a notion called DNA replication. It takes place when the original DNA cell produces a replica of its own and this new cell is given to a cell of a new generation. This is the process of why children often look like their parents or have similar traits of character.

The scientists claim that DNA is a unique phenomenon in the genetics. There were at least 15 ground-breaking facts about DNA that once shook the whole scientific world and changed its perspective on the Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

DNA structure of bases

  1. If you for some reason decided to type one word from your DNA code in one second and you worked 8 hours a day, you would need 50 years to type it all.
  2. At first the notion of DNA was found by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. However, the scientists did not admit its existence until 1940s.
  3. In case one person would unwrap his/her DNA information from his/her cells, he would be able to reach the moon at least 6 thousand times.
  4. 99.9% of all DNA is shared by all people, while the remaining 0.1% helps us better understand what genes belong to whom.
  5. Cabbage has around 45% similar DNA to a human one!
  6. 95% of our DNA is the same with that if a chimpanzee.
  7. Moreover, 50% of human’s DNA is identical to the DNA of a banana.
  8. 2 grams of full form of DNA code can store ALL the information this world has to offer.
  9. Furthermore, just 1 gram of DNA info weighs about 700 terabytes of information.
    shape of dna
  10. The DNA that is presented in just one cell of a human’s body can really take up to 2 meters. However, it was made in such a way that it only takes around 0.09 micrometers.
  11. Your DNA suffers damage every day. Some of such damage is even helpful, while other can lead to cancer.
  12. DNA is capable of making a copy of itself. This is why children look like their parents and behave like them too. The name of this phenomenon is “DNA replication”.
  13. The tests have proven that women tend to be more attracted to men with different DNA. They can even smell the difference when kissing the man.
  14. As identical twins have similar DNAs, this might be a problem for the police officers. Once, the police officers investigated a case of the theft, and the evidence of DNA brought them to a pair of identical twins. As both of them refused to have anything to do with the theft, police had to let them go.
  15. DNA brought the scientists to a conclusion that Columbus was not the first one to discover America. They claim that DNA tests showed that Polynesians came here in the 14th century, which is much earlier before the official discovery of the continent.

Therefore, DNA is an extremely interesting topic to explore. Read more about its peculiarities and main functions, and the history of its invention.

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