What are the most widespread symptoms of yellow fever and how to notice its signs fast? What are the reasons of this disease and how is it transmitted? Read the article to find all these answers.
What is yellow fever?
- Yellow fever virus is a viral hemorrhagic disease.
- What is yellow fever caused by? The source of the causative agent of yellow fever is sick people and wild animals, as a rule, opossums, and monkeys. And the carriers of the activator are mosquitoes.
- The increased temperature, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, vomiting, and exhaustion belong to symptoms of a disease.
- At a small share of the patients infected with a virus heavy symptoms develop, and about a half of them dies within 7-10 days.
- The virus is endemic in the tropical regions of Africa and Central and South America.
- From the moment of the beginning of the implementation of the initiative of the fight against yellow fever in 2006 in the Western Africa, considerable success has been achieved: more than 105 million people have been captured by mass campaigns for immunization. For 2015 the outbreaks of yellow fever in the Western Africa weren't registered.
- Large-scale epidemics of yellow fever happen when the infected people bring a virus to densely populated areas with a high density of population of mosquitoes and low or zero immunity to this disease at most of the population because of lack of vaccination. In such conditions transfer of a virus with the infected mosquitoes from the person to the person begins.
- Yellow fever can be prevented extremely effective inoculations. The yellow fever vaccine is safe and available at the price. One dose of a vaccine against yellow fever is enough for the formation of lifelong immunity against yellow fever without the need for a revaccination. At 99% of people who have received an inoculation effective immunity, it is formed within 30 days after a vaccination.
- Providing the good supporting treatment in hospitals raises survival indicators. At the moment anti-virus drugs against yellow fever don't exist.
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Yellow fever symptoms
- The incubatory period, that is the time from the moment of the sting of the mosquito to the emergence of the first symptoms of a disease, lasts 3-6 days.
- In displays of a disease, doctors allocate three periods: feverish, period of remission and reactive.
- The sharp beginning with the temperature increase of a body to 40 degrees Celsius, the emergence of severe head and articulate pain is characteristic of a disease. Also, leg and back pain is characteristic,
- The face of the patient reddens and swells,
- For the second day, there is strong thirst, nausea, and repeated vomiting,
- By the end of the feverish period jaundice can be noted,
- For 4-5 day of a disease, the health of the patient improves, and body temperature decreases. It is the remission period. But it lasts only several hours,
- After that, the health sharply worsens, and temperature increases again. The syndrome, which is shown nasal, intestinal, uterine bleeding, bloody vomiting and dot red rashes on skin, develops. Arterial pressure falls, the pulse is slowed down, weakness increases, and there can be a loss of mind.
- Myocarditis, pneumonia, gangrene of soft tissues or extremities belong to complications of a disease,
- As a result of the accession of secondary bacterial flora development of sepsis is possible,
- Diagnosis of yellow fever,
- The epidemiological anamnesis and symptoms of display of a disease are important for the diagnosis of yellow fever,
- At laboratory blood tests decrease in the level of leukocytes and neutrophils, increase in residual nitrogen, bilirubin is noted,
- In urine protein and cylinders is found,
- Also, serological methods and a histologic research of a liver are used.
Treatment of yellow fever
- In treatment of yellow fever, the doctor has two aims: elimination of symptoms of a disease and termination of its further development,
- The patient appoints a high bed rest, the sparing diet with the high number of calories. Massive vitamin therapy and intravenous administration of the adsorbing medicines and plasma substitutes is necessary,
- At the expressed hemorrhagic syndrome blood transfusion is appointed,
- In hard cases in therapy, hormones can be used.
Prevention of yellow fever
- For the purpose of prevention of yellow fever vaccination of the people leaving to areas, endemic on this disease is made. Immunity develops within 1 week and remains within 30 years,
- Vaccination is contraindicated in children up to 9-12 months, to pregnant women, HIV-positive patients, and also to the people having an allergy to egg white.
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