Nigeria is a former British colony, whose domination lasted for years. Despite the fact that gaining independence is a complicated and problematic process, this country still separated from British colony and became an independent state. In this article, we will talk about how Nigeria got her independence.
Independence Day of Nigeria is celebrated on October 1 every year. This holiday is set in the country in honor of the anniversary of the independence of Nigeria from Britain in 1960.
What was before the proclamation of independence?
In the "Partition of Africa" at the Berlin conference of 1885 great Britain laid claim on the part of the coast of Guinea, the coast of modern southern Nigeria. The colonizers teach in the local population (Yoruba) Anglican form of Christianity, crops, cocoa, and peanuts, built railroads (1916), drilled oil wells (1958).
In 1914 the British colony on the territory of Nigeria were United into the Protectorate of Nigeria. Unified Nigerian nation has not emerged. The country was divided into Autonomous regions, corresponding to the areas of residence of the Yoruba (West), Hausa (North) and (East). By these nationalities was formed the ethnic-regional party.
The Independence Day
During the proclamation of independence on 1, October 1960 Nigeria was a Federation, consisting of the former Federal capital, Lagos, and three large, highly autonomous administrative regions: Northern, Western, and Eastern. In 1963 the Western Nigeria were selected for the fourth region - the Midwest. In respect of Nigeria has approved the concept of the North and South (Eastern and Western Nigeria and Lagos).
The nature of the political processes in Nigeria in the first half of 1980-ies is widely determined by the struggle for power between the dominant peoples of the North (Hausa and Fulani) and the South (Yoruba and IBO). Depending on the situation, other ethnic groups could be allies of the southerners, the people of the North.
This competition lasted more than one year. In 1966 in a military coup was abolished and parliamentary Republic established a military government, and in 1967 the territory of Nigeria was divided into 12 States. The government of East region, wherein 1966 and grew up separatist sentiments, proclaimed the establishment of the independent Republic of Biafra, after which civil war broke out. 15 January 1970, after fierce resistance to the feudal forces within 31 months, Biafra capitulated.
Despite all the difficulties, the population celebrates the Independence Day of Nigeria extensively.
Stages of independence in Nigeria
- From 1960 to 1966 - "The First Republic", followed by a period of the civil war of 1967-1970.
- In 1979 was founded the "Second Republic" that lasted until 1983.
- From 1983 to 1998, Nigeria has acted "the Third Republic."
- Since 1998, the last period of the "Fourth Republic."
Nigeria after Independence
There were a lot of events in Nigeria after the Day of Independence. In January 1966 a group of officers of Igbo-led made a military coup. The military tried to establish in Nigeria a unitary state, divided into provinces. Sovereign risk Muslims consider the coup a threat to their interests, and throughout the country, ethnic clashes erupted. In late July, the military part, consisting of Northern troops, made a new military coup. The head of state was Colonel (later General), Jakub Gowon (ruled from 1966 to 1975). In the North, resumed the persecution of the Igbo, were killed thousands of people, which led to a mass Exodus of the Igbo to the East, their attempts to create a state of Biafra and the civil war of 1967-1970. The country returned to a Federal system.
The second awful event is the civil war. It was the armed conflict caused by ethnic conflicts and the attempt to separate the Eastern provinces of the country, proclaimed the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. In the fighting, that lasted from July 1967 to January 1970 the Nigerian Federal government managed to regain control over the breakaway territories. The civil war in Nigeria, along with the Vietnam War is considered the bloodiest conflict of the 1960-ies. Different sources say that in the conflict killed from 700 000 to 3 000 000 people, mostly residents of the territories of Biafra victims of war crimes, starvation, and disease.
What’s going on now?
Today Independence Day is celebrated in all 36 States and the capital Abuja. The holiday begins with the President of Nigeria to its people, which is broadcast live on radio and TV. An integral part of the festive events is military parades, the parade of students and unions to folk music and songs of famous artists.