The pituitary gland. Is below the bridge of the brain and consists of three lobes: anterior, intermediate and posterior. Anterior lobe secretes growth hormone, which affects bone growth in length accelerates the processes of metabolism, leads to increased growth, increase in body weight. The hormone deficiency — dwarfism, while body proportions and mental development are not violated. Hyperthyroidism in children leads to gigantism (in children long limbs, they are not physically tough), occurs in adults acromegaly (increased size of hands, feet, facial part of the skull, nose, lips, chin). Hypothyroidism in adults leads to changes in metabolism either to obesity or dramatic weight loss. The intermediate lobe of the pituitary secretes a hormone that affects skin pigmentation. The back share is formed by nerve tissue. The hormones it does not synthesize. In the posterior pituitary are transported biologically active substances produced by the nuclei of the hypothalamus. One of them selectively affect the contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus and secretion of the mammary glands. Other increases blood pressure and delays the excretion of urine. When you reduce the amount of this substance in the urine flow increases up to 10-20 liters. per day. This disease is called diabetes insipidus.